Cardiology / Cardiovascular

Coronary Bypass

The procedure is used to treat heart attacks or serious chest pain caused by blockages in the arteries that supply blood to the heart muscle. A blood vessel taken from elsewhere in the body is attached to the diseased heart artery, rerouting blood around the blockage.
  • Eligibility:
    • Based on your medical records and condition, a doctor will decide if you are a candidate for CABG.
  • Risks:
    • Bleeding
    • Heart rhythm problems
    • Blood clots
    • Infection
    • Post-pericardiotomy syndrome
    • Memory loss or difficulty thinking
    • Reactions to anesthesia
  • Benefits:
    The operation can save your life if you are having a heart attack or are at high risk of having one. Highly effective eliminating and reducing discomfort If you have ongoing chest pain and shortness of breath from diseased heart arteries.


Coronary angioplasty is a minimally invasive procedure to restore normal blood flow to a blocked or narrowed artery that supplies blood to your heart. It’s is a standard treatment for coronary artery disease.
  • Eligibility:
    • If you have a significant narrowing or blockage of a coronary artery, or you have symptoms of CAD. Doctors often use angioplasty and related procedures to prevent a heart attack.
    • Your doctor may recommend angioplasty if:
    • You have chest pain or shortness of breath due to CAD
    • You have had a heart attack You are not feeling better despite medicines and lifestyle changes to reverse atherosclerosis
    • You have a coronary bypass graft that has closed or narrowed
  • Risks:
    • Blood clots
    • Irregular heartbeat, or arrhythmia
    • Damage to a blood vessel, heart valve, or artery Infection
  • Benefits:
    • An efficient way to get the blood flowing to the heart again quickly. The sooner your doctor restores your blood supply, the less hurt there will be to your heart muscle. Angioplasty also relieves chest pain and may prevent shortness of breath and other symptoms associated with a heart attack.

Specialists performing the procedure


Electrophysiology relates to the electrical activity of your heart to find where an arrhythmia (abnormal heartbeat) is coming from. These results can help you and your doctor decide whether you need medicine, a pacemaker, an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD), cardiac ablation or surgery.
Peacemaker and Dual Peacemaker maker implantation:

A pacemaker is a small device that is implanted just below your collarbone through a small incision carried out under the effects of local anesthetic. A wire is lead to the heart and it’s lodged in the tissue of your heart. Electrical impulses will normalize the heart rythm.


ICD implantation (Cardioverter defibrillators):

An implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) is a small battery-powered device placed in your chest to monitor your heart rhythm and detect irregular heartbeats. An ICD can deliver electric shocks via one or more wires connected to your heart to fix an abnormal heart rhythm.


3D mapping Ablation:

The electro anatomical mapping is a system that allows the specialist to reconstruct the heart cavities for their analysis. It also allows the physician to identify the places where the heart is malfunctioning and to correct them by heat (radiofrequency ablation) or freezing (cryoablation).



  • Eligibility: 
    • If you have a condition that causes an abnormal heartbeat. 
  • Benefits
    • An implantation of a pacemaker relieves symptoms of irregular heart rhythm. 
    • A proper amount of blood circulation reduces the shortness of breath (is not a cure).
    • It will improve your quality of life. 

Specialists performing the procedure

Fundación Cardiovascular

Aortic Valve Replacement

Unlike open-heart surgery, in which an incision is made across the full length of your chest to remove the unhealthy valve, TAVR uses a catheter to implant a new pipe within your diseased valve.
  • Eligibility:
    • The TAVR procedure may also be an option for people at high risk for surgery who had their aortic valve replaced in the past but need a new one because the replacement valve may no longer work. 
    • You’ve been diagnosed with severe aortic stenosis and may need your aortic valve replaced.
  • Risks:
    • Damage to the heart tissue (myocardial infarction) 
    • Angina (chest pain) 
    • Abnormal heartbeat (cardiac arrhythmia and dysrhythmia) 
    • Failure of the valve to open and close properly 
    • Inflammation of the lining of the heart (endocarditis)
  • Benefits:
    • Improved quality of life following the procedure, including the ability to return to normal daily activities 
    • Proven to have lower instances of death, stroke, and rehospitalization compared to open-heart surgery.
    • Shorter hospital stay 
    • Relief of Symptoms 
    • Less pain and anxiety 
    • Minimal scarring 

Specialists performing the procedure

Aortic or Mitral Valve Replacement (Open Heart Surgery)

When valves are damaged or diseased and do not work the way they should, they may need to be repaired or replaced. Traditionally, open-heart surgery is used to repair or replace heart valves, which means the chest cut a large incision and the heart stopped for a time so that the surgeon can repair or replace the valve(s).
  • Eligibility:  
    • If your heart valve(s) becomes damaged or diseased, you may have the following symptoms: 
    • Dizziness
    • Chest pain
    • Breathing difficulties 
    • Palpitations 
    • Edema (swelling) of the feet, ankles, or abdomen (belly) 
    • Rapid weight gain due to fluid retention
  • Risks:  
    • Blood clots
    • Infection 
    • Breathing problems 
    • Arrhythmias (abnormal heart rhythms) 
    • The repaired or replaced valve doesn’t work correctly 

Specialists performing the procedure

Mitral Valve Replacement

Might be performed to treat diseases of the mitral valve — the valve located between the left heart chambers.
  • Eligibility:
    • Mitral valve repair is the best option for nearly all patients with a leaking (regurgitant) mitral valve and for many with a narrowed (stenotic) mitral valve. People who have severe symptoms of mitral valve regurgitation and who aren’t candidates for surgery or who have high surgical risk may be considered for this procedure.
  • Risks:
    • Blood clots 
    • Valve dysfunction in replacement valves 
    • Heart rhythm problems 
    • Infection
      *After mitral valve repair, 95% of patients are free of reoperation at 10 years, and this statistic is similar at 20 years. Thus, reoperation is uncommon after a successful mitral valve repair.
  • Benefits:  
    • Be able to return to daily activities, such as working, driving and exercise
    • Better early and late survival (longer life)
    • Improved lifestyle 
    • Better preservation of heart function 
    • Lower risk of stroke and infection (endocarditis) 
    • No need for blood thinners (anticoagulation) 

Specialists performing the procedure

Fundación Cardiovascular
Fundación Cardioinfantil

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